According to the different uses and structures, lathe consists of horizontal lathes and bed lathe, vertical lathe, turret lathe, single-spindle automatic lathes and multispindle automatic and semi-automatic lathes, copying lathes and multiple tool lathe and a variety of specialized lathes, such as:cam shaft lathe, Crank shaft lathe, wheel lathes, relieving lathes. In all lathes, horizontal lathe is the most widely used. Horizontal lathe machining dimensions tolerance class can up to IT8~IT7, surface roughness Ra up to 1.6 μm。In recent years, computer technology has been widely used in the machine tool manufacturing industry, with the emergence of CNC lathes, turning centers, such as Mechatronics products.
Processing widely, spindle speed and feed rate have big adjustment range, can process inner and outer surfaces of the workpiece, face and internal and external threads. This lathe is mainly composed of workers hand-operated, low production efficiency, suitable for single-piece and small-batch production and repair shop.
Turret rotation lathes
With the turret or rotation turret can carry knives,workpieces in one clamping ,the workers use different tools to complete many production procedures in turn, suitable for mass production.
According to a certain program to automatically complete the artifact of multi-procedure processing, automatic loading and unloading, repeat processing a quantity of the same piece, suitable for mass, mass production.
Multiple cutter semi-automatic lathe
It can be divided into Single-and multiple-axis, the horizontal and vertical .Single-shaft horizontal type is similar to general lathe, but both groups mounted turret or up and down around the spindle for machining plates, rings and shaft parts, their production rates 3~5 times higher than ordinary lathe.
Modelled on the shape of the model or prototype size, automated workpiece machining cycles (see copying machine), applies to more complex shape workpiece of small batch and mass production, productivity 10~15 times higher than conventional lathe. Multi tool, multi axis, Chuck-type, vertical type.
Axis perpendicular to the horizontal plane, and workpiece in a horizontal rotating table moves on the tool rest on the beam or column. Suitable for machining large, heavy, difficult to install on the lathe artifacts into two classes of single and double-column.
At the same time turning, tool rest cycles in the radial reciprocating motion used to forklifts of shaping tooth milling cutters, hobs, etc. Usually with a grinding attachment, driven by a separate electric motor small wheel gear grinding surface.
Lathe machining a workpiece of a specific surface, such as Crank shaft lathe, Cam shaft lathe, wheel lathe,Axis lathe,Roll lathe and steel ingot lathe and so on.
Combination surfacing and boring lathe
Mainly used for turning, but imposed some special parts and accessories can also be boring, milling, drilling, grinding and other shaping, with “One machine multifunction” characteristic, applies to engineering vehicles, ships or mobile repair work on the station.
CNC machine is a kind of digital information, control of machines at a given locus for automatic processing of electromechanical integration equipment, after half a century of development, has become an important symbol of modern manufacturing of CNC machine tools in China’s manufacturing, CNC machine tool is used more and more widely, is an embodiment of comprehensive strength of enterprises. CNC lathes is short for digital controlled lathes , universal lathes, precision lathe high machining precision and higher efficiency of special Lathe features all rolled into one, is the most heavily used, the most extensive coverage of a CNC machine tool.
Gap-bed lathe being sunk in the box at the left end of the engine bed that can accommodate large-diameter parts. Lathes shape-high on both side, low in the middle , shaped like a saddle, called the Gap-bed (saddle) lathes. Lathes for machining radial size large axial dimensions of small parts, is suitable for cutting the workpiece outer circle, hole, surfacing, grooving and metric thread, BS, module, section, and also for drilling, boring, reaming process, especially for single, batch production enterprises. Can lathes in gap processing large-diameter workpieces. Guideways are hardened and grinding, easy to operate and reliable. Lathe with high power, high speed, strong rigidity, high precision and low noise characteristics.
Meter lathe belongs to simple horizontal lathe, in general maximum workpiece diameter below the 250mm of the machine, belonging to the lathe. Lathes are divided into ordinary type, hex and finishing types. This lathe is mainly composed of workers in manual operation, suitable for single parts, mass production of simple parts.