Lathe machine has always played an important role in the machining industry and is an irreplaceable part of industrial manufacturing and processing. It has a long history of development. From the original manual lathes to automatic lathes, and then to CNC lathes and intelligent lathes, it has provided a great impetus to the development of industry.
In simple terms, a lathe is a machine tool that mainly uses a lathe tool to cut the rotating workpiece. It is different from the milling machine we often talk about. In general, the machining form of the lathe is the feed movement of the tool, and its main motion is the rotation movement of the workpiece. The mill machine is opposite to the lathe. The main motion of the milling machine is the rotary motion of the milling cutter, and the motion of the workpiece is used as a feed motion. The structure of the lathe generally includes the bed, the spindle box, the feed box, the tool holder, the tailstock, the cooling device and so on.
Bed: it is a basic part of a high precision guide. It is used to support and connect the various parts of the lathe, and to ensure that the parts have accurate relative position in the work.
Spindle box: the main task of the spindle box is to transmit the power from the main motor to a spindle through a series of transmission mechanisms, while the spindle box will transmit some power to the feed box. The spindle in the spindle box is the key part of the lathe. The smoothness of the spindle will directly affect the machining quality of the workpiece. Once the rotation precision of the spindle is reduced, the use value of the machine tool will be reduced.
Feed box: the feed box is equipped with a speed changing mechanism of feed motion. By adjusting the transmission mechanism, the required feed can be obtained, and then the power can be transmitted to the tool holder through the bare bar or screw to carry out the cutting.
Tool holder: the tool holder consists of slide plates, a bed saddle and a knife frame. It is used to install the cutter and drive the tool.
Tailstock: it can be mounted on the guide rail of the bed and move along the guide rail to adjust its working position.
Cooling device: the machine tool cooling device will press the cutting fluid to the cutting area, reduce the cutting temperature, sweep the chip and lubricate the surface, so as to improve the service life of the tool and the surface processing quality of the workpiece.
For example, the first two types of ordinary lathes are C616 and C6240. There is a great difference between the two machine tools in the transmission mechanism. The two types of lathes are the representatives of two different kinds of lathes.
The C616 lathe transfers the mechanical power to the spindle box by the independent gearbox of the machine tool. Its advantage is that the operation is flexible and convenient, and the maintenance is very simple. But many years' experience tells me that it has a biggest drawback, that is, the lathe with this structure needs repeated positive and negative two directions speed changes when machining threads, resulting in the gearbox being easily damaged. The main reason for the damage of the gearbox is that in the direction of changing the speed, the gearbox does not have a buffer structure to damage the gear easily. And this kind of structural design will often leak oil, this problem has troubled engineers for many years.
The C6240 lathe has no independent gearbox. It combines the gearbox and the spindle box effectively, so the problem that the gearbox is easy to damage is solved. At present, the lathe machine with independent gearbox has been gradually eliminated.
Now CNC technology is also widely used in the field of lathe, resulting in a series of high precision and efficient CNC lathe products, making production and processing more convenient and convenient, and further promoting the development of machinery manufacturing industry.